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Write down the main concerns of natural approach theory in teaching language.

The Natural Approach is a language teaching methodology developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell. It is based on the principles of second language...
HomeEnglishWhat are the main techniques  associated with the GTM?

What are the main techniques  associated with the GTM?

The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM) is a traditional approach to language teaching that focuses on the explicit teaching of grammar rules and vocabulary, often through translation exercises. Here are the main techniques associated with the Grammar-Translation Method:

  1. Explicit Grammar Instruction:
    • The teacher provides explicit explanations of grammar rules, often presenting them deductively. Students are expected to memorize and apply these rules in exercises.
  2. Translation Exercises:
    • Translation is a central component of GTM. Students translate sentences or passages from the target language to their native language and vice versa. This helps reinforce vocabulary and grammar understanding.
  3. Vocabulary Lists:
    • Vocabulary is often presented in lists, and students are required to memorize these lists. Translation exercises may involve matching words from the target language to their equivalents in the native language.
  4. Reading Comprehension:
    • Reading texts, often literary or classical in nature, is a common practice in GTM. Students read and analyze texts, focusing on understanding the meaning and translating the content.
  5. Written Exercises:
    • Students engage in written exercises, such as fill-in-the-blank sentences, rewriting sentences to apply grammar rules, and composing short paragraphs in the target language.
  6. Use of Native Language:
    • The native language is frequently used as a reference point for explaining grammar rules, providing instructions, and conducting translation activities.
  7. Emphasis on Accuracy:
    • GTM places a high value on accuracy in language use. Students are expected to produce correct grammar and precise translations.
  8. Formal Tone:
    • The language used in GTM is often formal and may involve more literary or archaic expressions, especially when working with classical texts.
  9. Memorization:
    • Memorization is a key element of GTM. Students memorize vocabulary, grammar rules, and even entire passages of text to demonstrate proficiency in the language.
  10. Teacher-Centered Approach:
    • The teacher plays a central role in GTM, delivering explanations, directing activities, and providing corrections. The focus is on transmitting knowledge from the teacher to the students.
  11. Little Emphasis on Speaking and Listening:
    • Speaking and listening skills are typically given less emphasis in GTM. The primary focus is on written language skills, grammar rules, and translation.
  12. Drills and Repetition:
    • Drill exercises are commonly used to reinforce grammar and vocabulary. Repetition is seen as a means of reinforcing correct language usage.

It’s important to note that while GTM has been criticized for its limitations in developing communicative language skills, it was historically prevalent in language education, especially in teaching classical languages like Latin and Ancient Greek. Modern language teaching has shifted towards more communicative and student-centered approaches, but elements of GTM may still be found in language classrooms today, especially in certain educational contexts and for specific language learning goals.