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Write down the main concerns of natural approach theory in teaching language.

The Natural Approach is a language teaching methodology developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell. It is based on the principles of second language...
HomeEnglishWhat are the fundamental differences between the audio lingual method and direct...

What are the fundamental differences between the audio lingual method and direct method?

The Audio-Lingual Method and the Direct Method are both approaches to language teaching, but they differ significantly in their principles, techniques, and underlying philosophies. Here are the fundamental differences between the two:

Audio-Lingual Method:

  1. Focus on Drills:
    • The Audio-Lingual Method places a strong emphasis on repetitive drills. These drills involve students in practicing language patterns, structures, and vocabulary through repetition and mimicry.
  2. Behaviorist Approach:
    • Rooted in behaviorist psychology, the Audio-Lingual Method views language learning as a habit formation process. It emphasizes conditioning and reinforcement to develop automatic responses.
  3. Use of Stimulus-Response:
    • The method relies on a stimulus-response model, where students respond to linguistic stimuli with predetermined language patterns. This reinforces correct usage through repetition.
  4. Limited Use of Mother Tongue:
    • The use of the mother tongue (native language) is discouraged in the classroom. The focus is on maintaining an immersive environment in the target language.
  5. Structural Linguistics Influence:
    • The Audio-Lingual Method is influenced by structural linguistics, emphasizing the importance of mastering sentence structures and grammatical patterns.
  6. Little Student Initiative:
    • Students have a passive role in the learning process. They follow the teacher’s instructions and engage in structured drills, with limited opportunities for self-expression or creativity.
  7. Vocabulary and Grammar Emphasis:
    • Vocabulary and grammar are taught inductively through contextualized drills. The method aims to develop automatic language responses without explicit grammar explanations.

Direct Method:

  1. Naturalistic and Inductive Approach:
    • The Direct Method is more naturalistic and inductive. It draws inspiration from the natural language acquisition process, emphasizing immersion and direct interaction in the target language.
  2. Communicative Approach:
    • Communication is a central focus. The Direct Method encourages students to communicate directly in the target language, promoting oral proficiency and practical language use.
  3. Real-life Situations:
    • Lessons are designed around real-life situations, and vocabulary is introduced in context. Grammar is learned naturally through exposure, rather than through explicit instruction.
  4. Use of Visual Aids:
    • Visual aids, objects, and gestures are utilized to convey meaning without resorting to translation. This helps create an immersive environment and facilitates understanding.
  5. Student-Centered Learning:
    • The Direct Method is more student-centered. Students actively participate in the learning process through interactive activities, discussions, and role-playing.
  6. Teacher as a Facilitator:
    • The teacher acts as a facilitator, guiding students through interactive activities, correcting errors, and providing feedback. The emphasis is on creating a supportive and engaging learning environment.
  7. Use of Mother Tongue:
    • The mother tongue can be used to clarify meaning or provide explanations if necessary. However, the primary mode of instruction and communication is in the target language.
  8. Focus on Meaningful Communication:
    • The goal is to promote meaningful communication from the early stages. Students learn to express themselves in the target language by engaging in authentic conversations.

In summary, the Audio-Lingual Method is characterized by structured drills, behaviorist principles, and a focus on habit formation through repetition. In contrast, the Direct Method emphasizes natural communication, immersion, and a student-centered, inductive approach to language learning.