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Write down the main concerns of natural approach theory in teaching language.

The Natural Approach is a language teaching methodology developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell. It is based on the principles of second language...
HomeEnglishState the main principles of the  total physical response method (TPR)

State the main principles of the  total physical response method (TPR)

The Total Physical Response (TPR) method is a language teaching approach that emphasizes the connection between language and physical movement. Developed by Dr. James J. Asher in the 1960s, TPR is particularly effective in the early stages of language learning. The main principles of the Total Physical Response method include:

  1. Imperative Commands:
    • TPR relies heavily on the use of imperative commands. Instructors give clear, concise commands to students, who respond by performing the corresponding physical action.
  2. Physical Movement:
    • Physical movement is a central component of TPR. Students demonstrate their understanding of language by physically acting out the commands given by the teacher. This kinesthetic approach helps reinforce vocabulary and language structures.
  3. Listening and Comprehension:
    • TPR emphasizes listening and comprehension skills. Students follow instructions in the target language, and their ability to carry out the commands demonstrates their understanding of the spoken language.
  4. Low Anxiety Environment:
    • TPR creates a low-anxiety learning environment, especially suitable for beginners. The focus on physical actions and the absence of pressure to produce language immediately allows learners to feel more comfortable and less stressed.
  5. Repetition and Reinforcement:
    • Repetition is a key principle in TPR. Commands are repeated, and actions are performed multiple times to reinforce vocabulary and language structures. This repetition aids in the internalization of language patterns.
  6. Learner-Centered Approach:
    • TPR is a learner-centered approach. Students actively participate in the learning process by responding to commands and engaging in physical activities. The teacher serves as a facilitator, guiding students through the language-learning experience.
  7. Understanding Before Production:
    • TPR follows the principle that learners should understand a language structure before being required to produce it. Initially, students focus on comprehension through physical responses before being prompted to speak.
  8. Natural Language Acquisition Process:
    • TPR aligns with the natural language acquisition process, emphasizing the connection between language and physical action. The method draws parallels to the way infants acquire their first language by associating words with concrete actions and experiences.
  9. Use of Gestures and Visual Aids:
    • Teachers often use gestures and visual aids to support comprehension. These non-verbal cues help clarify meaning and provide additional context for the commands given.
  10. Incorporation of Playful Elements:
    • TPR often incorporates playful and enjoyable elements, making the learning experience more engaging for students. Games and interactive activities can be integrated to enhance the overall language learning process.
  11. Adaptability to Different Ages:
    • TPR can be adapted for learners of various ages, from young children to adults. The method’s focus on physical movement makes it versatile and suitable for different learning environments.
  12. Integration of Vocabulary and Grammar:
    • Vocabulary and grammar are integrated seamlessly in TPR. Commands and actions involve a combination of words and structures, allowing learners to grasp both vocabulary and grammatical concepts in context.

Overall, the Total Physical Response method emphasizes the interactive and dynamic nature of language learning, promoting comprehension through physical engagement and providing a foundation for subsequent language production.